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       学术essay写作(academic writing),无论是论文还是专著,间架要稳固,才有可读性,才有说服力。



       稳,有几个应然特征:部块(parts)关联紧密;部块不外生枝叶;部块之间没有杂质干扰。稳固间架,有多种建构方法。其中,主界定要素间架法(core-definition-factors framing)最稳固、最简单,最合适年轻学术essay写作者(academic writers),也最合适面向年轻读者的学术读物。主界定,是对研究对象(object of research)的本质(nature)、基本特征(fundamental characters,essential qualities)与界域(scope,territory)的描述。做主界定,目的是锁定研究对象。不做主界定,研究对象会游移,研究视域会漂移。一切界定,如果有效,都简明扼要,都有三至五个要素(key factors of definition),用三至五个关键词或三五个语句呈现。但是,因为研究对象不同,也因为写作目的不同,界定有时一步到位,因此,只包含一套要素;有时两步或多步到位,因此,包含两套或多套要素。


       …education is understood to involve organized and sustained communication designed to bring about learning.

       --UNESCO,International Standard Classification of Education,ISCED 1997.


       Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals,working together in groups,efficiently accomplish selected aims.This basic definition needs to be expanded.

       As managers,people carry out the managerial functions of planning,organizing,staffing,leading,and controlling.

       Management applies to any kind of organization.

       It applies to managers at all organizational levels.

       The aim of all managers is the same:to create a surplus.

       Managing is concerned with productivity,which implies effectiveness and efficiency.

       --Koontz,H.,&Weihrich,H.Essentials of Management.



       This small book attempts to explain a rationale for viewing,analyzing and interpreting the curriculum and instruction.…

       The rationale developed here begins with identifying four fundamental questions which must be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instruction.These are:

       1.What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

       2.What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes?

       3.How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

       4.How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

       --Tyler,R.W.Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.




       Part 1:The Basic of Global Management Theory and Practice(Chapters 1-3)

       Part 2:Planning(Chapters 4-6)

       Part 3:Organizing(Chapters 7-10)

       Part 4:Staffing(Chapters 11-13)

       Part 5:Leading(Chapters 14-17)

       Part 6:Controlling(Chapters 18-20)

       --Koontz,H.,&Weihrich,H.Essentials of Management.





       1.What Educational Purposes Should the School Seek to Attain?

       2.How Can Learning Experiences Be Selected Which Are Likely to Be Useful in Attaining These Objectives?

       3.How Can Learning Experiences Be Organized for Effective Instruction?

       4.How Can the Effectiveness of Learning Experiences Be Evaluated?

       5.How a School or College Staff May Work on Curriculum Building

       --Tyler,R.W.Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.




       Part 1:Management Theory and Practice

       Part 2:Designing

       Part 3:Maintaining

       Part 4:Planning and Organizing

       Part 5:Staffing

       Part 6:Leading and Controlling


       Part 1:Management Theory and Practice

       Part 2:Planning and Organizing

       Part 3:Staffing,Leading and Controlling

       Part 4:Organizations

       Part 5:Managers

       Part 6:Productivity