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apa和mla参考文献格式规范

apa和mla参考文献格式规范

留学生论文写作中,使用参考文献是无法避免的。值得注意的是,引用他人的文献未加以注明则是一种剽窃行为。有关参考文献的写法国际上有惯例和规则,最为流行的参考文献的写法是MLA(The Modern Language Association)、APA(The American Psychological Association)和Chicago Manual Style。参考文献引用的规范应该按专业方向的不同选择使用mla或apa,一般偏重人文学科的应用MLA,偏重自然学科的应用APA。学位申请人应认真阅读相应的规范使用手册。当然,学校在布置作业论文时,一般都有要求使用哪种格式进行写作。apa、mla参考文献格式规范有哪些呢?两种格式有哪些差别呢?

一、 引文的格式
引文的格式可采用文中夹注、脚注和尾注的形式。MLA和APA格式不采用脚注或尾注,而使用文中夹注的形式,MLA格式要求标明作者的姓和页数,它们之间没有逗号。APA要求括号里标明作者姓名、出版日期,引文的其他信息可在参考文献中找到。

1 文中夹注(Parenthetical Citation)

1)引文较短时,要用双引号括起来,引文与正文融为一体。如果作者已在文中出现,注释中就不再列作者的名字。
Hosenfeld found that unsuccessful readers could be taught the lexical strategies of successful readers, confirming Wenden’s observation that“ineffective learners are inactive learners. Their apparent inability to learn is, in fact, due to their not having an appropriate repertoire of learning strategies.”(1985:7)

mla和apa格式有哪些不同

引用整篇文献(即全书或全文)观点时有两种情况,一种是作者的姓氏在正文中没有出现,以下是一些案例节选,完整版可以通过底部下载通道下载!

如: MLA: Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor).

APA: Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (Taylor, 1990). 另一种情况是作者的姓氏已在正文同一句中出现,按MLA的规范不需要使用括号夹

注,如: MLA: Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing. 而按APA的规范则没有必要在括号夹注中重复作者的姓,

如: APA: Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing (1990).

如果作者的姓氏和文献出版年份均已在正文同一句中出现,按APA的规范不需使用括号夹注,如: APA: In a 1990 article, Taylor claims that Charlotte and Emily Bronte were polar opposites, not only in their personalities but in their sources of inspiration for writing.

在英文撰写的论文中引用中文著作或者期刊,括号夹注中只需用汉语拼音标明作者的姓氏,不得使用汉字,

如: MLA:  (Zhu 12) 

APA:  (Zhang, 2005) 

2)当引文较长时(四行或超过四行),引文要另起一段,缩进五个空格,不用引号。

Results supported the notion that learners can be taught to use more effective learning strategies:
Strategies training was successfully demonstrated in a natural teaching environment with second language listening and speaking tasks. This indicates that classroom instructions on learning strategies with integrative language skills can facilitate learning(O’Malley et al 1985a: 577).

3)多个作者在第二次被提到时可用第一个作者的姓加et al.

Finally, information type is based on contrasts such as concrete-abstract, static-dynamic, contextualized-decontextualized(Brown et al.1978).

4)引文是翻译材料时要注明最初出版时间和翻译时间。

This is not a recent discovery. More than a hundred years ago, the neo-grammarians Hermann Osthoff and Karl Brugman described such a situation very well:

When serious attempts at upset are directed against a procedure that one is used to and with which one feels comfortable, one is always more readily stimulated to ward off the disturbance than to undertake a thorough revision and possible alteration of the accustomed procedure.
(Osthoff and Brugman 1878(1967):204)

2 脚注(Footnotes)

脚注写在该页最后一行下面数四行的位置。如果该页有两个以上的脚注,脚注之间需要隔行。在正文中的引语(直接或间接)处的上方标上阿拉伯数字,脚注也标上相应的数字。注释要包括作者姓名、书名、出版地、出版社、出版时间及页码。

1. The materials used in the class consisted of two texts-a vocabulary building text and an advanced reading text-and the SRA Kit2

2. SRA Reading Laboratory is a set of materials for students in grades 9 to 12. The kit contains multilevel individualized learning materials focusing on reading and study skills.

3. 尾注(Endnotes)
尾注要另起一页,放在该章的最后一页,标上Notes,隔行打印。引语处的上方要标上阿拉伯数字,尾注也同样标出相应的数字。

Notes

1. Emily Bronte(Ellis Bell, pseud.), Wuthering Heights(London, 1850).

2. E. Nwezeh, “The Comparative Approach To Modern African Literature,”Yearbook of General and Comparative Literature, no. 28(1979):22.

二、 参考文献(Bibliography)

APA格式建议使用references一词。当使用references时,列出的作者和作品一定是在文中提到过的。Bibliography可包括文中提到的作者或作品,也包括相关的阅读的材料。MLA形式要求用List of Works Cited。

参考文献的条目要按字母顺序排列,不用阿拉伯数字标示。隔行打印。每个条目要从左开始,同属一个作者时,后面几行要缩进三个空格。

书目的写法包括四项:作者、日期、书名和出版社。作者项里先写出作者的姓,名字用首字母,名和姓间用逗号隔开。如果超过两个作者,最后一个作者前用&,所有的作者的姓和名都要颠倒。
APA形式把日期放在名后,其前后都有句号。书名的第一个字母要大写,用斜体或下划线。如果有小标题,用冒号把大标题和小标题隔开。

Krashen, S. 1982. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.

Lenneberg, E. 1967. Biological Foundations of Language Teaching. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

MLA也包括这四项,只是顺序不同。它的时间放在后面。当有两个以上的作者时,只颠倒第一个作者的名字。

Cisneros, Sandra. Woman Hollering Creek. New York: Random, 1991.

Barlett, Donald L., and James B. Steele. Forevermore: Nuclear Waste in America. New York: Norton, 1985

在标注杂志或期刊时,注明年月,年在前,月在后,由逗号隔开。月份要求会拼。标题的第一个字母要大写,用单引号。还要提供具体的页数。

Gregg, K. R. 1984. ’Krashen’s monitor and Occam’s razor.’ TESOL Quarterly 20:116-22

Jacobson, W. 1987.’ An assessment of the communication needs of non-native speakers of English in an

undergraduate physics lab.’ ESP Journal 5:173-88.

Johnson, K. 1983.’ Syllabus design: possible future trends’ in K. Johnson and D. Porter(eds.): Perspectives in Communicative Language Teaching. New York: Academic Press. (论文集中的一篇)

MLA形式要求标题的所有词的首字母大写。

摘引报纸:

Greene, Bob.“What’s Bad For General Motors?”. Chicago Tribune 24 December, 1991:2.1(MLA格式)

下载通道——《MLA和APA区别的具体案列》

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