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写essay前你听懂教授的“Instructional words”了吗?





So~我们此次就来讲讲教授的“潜台词”Instructional words.
        Instructional words,你们应该并不陌生。绝大多数学校作业以及考试阅读题比如:essays、reports、literature reviews、critiques、proposals等都会有instructional words,直译也就是“指导性词语”。
        也就是教授给出的写作建议,表示他们希望你如何去Essay,作业或考试。比如Analyse、Comment、Critical Analysis等等都是指导词。

        account for
        - 中文解释:陈述理由,解释
        -潜台词give reasons for
        give an account of 
        - 中文解释:做出描述或是说明
        -潜台词: describe
        to take into account
        - 中文解释:考虑、思考
        -潜台词: to consider, to think of
        - 中文解释:vt. 分析;分解;细察,分成各部分说明各部分, 并解释它们之间的关系以及发现,探讨相关问题。
        -潜台词: divide into parts and describe each part and explain their relationship; discuss a problem
        此处的【分析】,可不意味着详细的介绍下就是的了。请先阅题,首先你得Separate or break up something into its component parts,这样你才可以discover its nature proportion, function, relationship等。老师要看到分解、思辨的过程,有节奏有逻辑的分析,这才是你该做的。
        -中文解释: vi. 争论,辩论;提出理由vt. 辩论,争论;证明;说服
        -潜台词:systematically support or reject a position by presenting reasons and evidence for acceptance or rejection
        systematically的意思是有系统地; 有组织地; 有条不紊地。并且还要 presenting reasons and evidence,理由充分也要一点一点的列出来证明。
        - 中文解释:n. 评论;意见;批评vi. 发表评论;发表意见vt. 为…作评语
        -潜台词:Make critical observations, even if they are fairly open-ended. Your texts, learning guide, lecture and discussion notes should provide sufficient guidelines and your own commonsense should prevail.   
        此处的【意见】,并不单指发表意见就可以了,需要你提供critical observations,也就是评判性观察。
        - 中文解释:vt. 比较;对照;比喻为vi. 比较;相比n. 比较
        -潜台词:Find similarities and differences between two or more ideas, events, interpretations, etc. Ensure you understand exactly what you are being asked to compare. 
        此处更加侧重于对(两个)比较事物的全面理解。首先你可以Identify 他们的相同点和相似点。然后再比较区别,即使问题里没有明确叫你去比较. If appropriate, justify your choice.
        - 中文解释:vi. 对比;形成对照vt. 使对比;使与…对照n. 对比;差别;对照物
        -潜台词:Find similarities and differences between two or more ideas, events, interpretations etc. Focus on the differences.  
        此处的【对比】,相比较Compare,更侧重于对比两件事物间的差异对比。If appropriate, give reasons for your preference
        Critical Analysis
        - 中文解释:批判分析
        -潜台词:Examine the topic or argument in terms of its strengths and weaknesses.    
        - 中文解释:vt. 批评;吹毛求疵;非难
        -潜台词:Express your judgements regarding the correctness or merit of the factors being considered. Discuss both strong and weak points and give the results of your own analysis. Student insights are expected and arguments must be justified.  
        - 中文解释:vt. 定义;使明确;规定
        -潜台词:Provide concise, clear, authoritative meanings. In such statements, details are not necessarily required, but briefly cite the boundaries or limitations of the definition. Remeber the 'class' to which a things belongs and whatever differentiates the particular object from all others in that class.    
        简明,明确,权威的定义,细节不一定重要,但要differentiatesfrom all others in that class.
        - 中文解释:vt. 描述,形容;描绘
        -潜台词:Recall facts, processes or events. You are not asked to explain or interpret. Try to provide a thorough description, emphasising the most important points.    
        回顾整个事实,过程或事件。注意是需要讲清楚the features。而不是去explain或者interpret,是做一个全面的描述,需要emphasising the most important points的描述。
        - 中文解释:-n. 图表;图解vt. 用图解法表示
        -潜台词:Present a drawing, chart, plan or graphic representation in your answer. Generally, you are also expected to label the diagram and a brief explanation or description may be required.  
        图表除了图之外,别忘了同时简单对图表进行简单的explanation or description。
        - 中文解释: vt. 讨论;论述,辩论
        -潜台词:Present a point of view. This is likely to need both description and interpretation. Your opinion must be supported by carefully chosen and authoritative evidence.   
        介绍一下观点。你的观点可得靠carefully chosen and authoritative evidence展现。
        - 中文解释:vt. 列举;枚举;计算
        -潜台词:Provide a list or outline form of reply. In such questions you should recount, one by one, but concisely, the points required.   
        以上就是此次的Instructional words分析,Hotessay小编建议同学们如果在写作中不确定那些“指导性词汇”到底意味这什么的时候,你可以回过头来看看这篇文章。需要essay代写的同学可以联系我们的客服哦!