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留学生要怎么培养essay“写作风格”

每个人在写essay的时候都有不同的写作风格,但Hotessay小编觉得,总的来说,它应该力求准确和客观。例如,像“我”和成语(即非正式的语言)这样的人称代词的使用频率要低于其他类型的书写。留学生们应该在自己的学科领域学习essay写作的例子,并且努力发展自己的“声音”。

Academic Style
        研究下面这一段,poor style的表达。
        How to make people work harder is a topic that lots of people have written about in the last few years. There are lots of different theories etc and I think some of them are ok. When we think about this we should remember the old Chinese proverb, that you can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it drink. So how do we increase production? It’s quite a complex subject but I’ll just talk about a couple of ideas.
        这段话可以用更合适的style改写:
        Motivation has been the subject of numerous studies during recent decades, but this essay will focus on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory (1943) and Herzberg’s two-factor theory (1966). Their contemporary relevance to the need to motivate employees effectively will be examined critically, given that this can be considered crucial to a firm’s survival in the current economic climate.
        Guidelines
        对于所有的情况,以及所有的学科,都没有适用于学术风格的规则。下面的guidelines可以帮助你形成自己的风格。
        (a)不要使用习惯用语或口语词汇: kids, boss. Instead use standard English: children, manager。
        (b)准确地使用词汇。rule和law,或者weather和climate之间有区别,如果你研究这些主题,你就会知道它们是什么。
        (c)在处理事实或数据时尽可能的精确。避免像a hundred或hundreds of years ago那样的短语。如果有必要估计数字,使用approximately而不是about。
        (d)结论应该使用试探性的语言。避免像unemployment causes crime。相反,使用谨慎的短语:unemployment may cause crime或tends to cause crime。
        (e)避免显示你的个人态度的副词:luckily,remarkably,surprisingly。
        (f)不要收缩动词形式:don’t,can’t。使用完整的形式:do not,cannot。
        (g)虽然学术英语倾向于使用被动语态,而不是标准英语,但它不应该被过度使用。两者都是需要的。比较:
        Galileo discovered the moons of Jupiter. 
        The moons of Jupiter were discovered by Galileo.
        在第一种情况下,重点是伽利略,在第二种被动语态中,重点是卫星。
        (h)避免以下内容
        like for introducing examples. Use such as or for instance.
        thing and combinations nothing or something. Use factor, issue or topic.
        lots of. Use a significant/considerable number.
        little/big. Use small/large.
        ‘get’ phrases such as get better/worse. Use improve and deteriorate.
        good/bad are simplistic. Use positive/negative (e.g. the changes had several positive aspects).
        (i)不使用诸如Why did war break out in 1914? Instead, use statements:
        There were three reasons for the outbreak of war . . .
        (j)避免在你的文章中编号,除了报告和长文章。使用连接词和符号表达来介绍新的部分(Turning to the question of detecting cancer . . .).
        (k)在写列表时,避免使用etc. 或者 and so on。在最后一项: The main products were pharmaceuticals, electronic goods and confectionery.。
        (l)避免使用两个词动词,如“as go on ”或“bring up”。使用continue或raise。

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