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      今天给大家分享文学里面的一种修辞手法 Allusion: a figure of speech that makes brief reference to a historical or literary figure, or object. 大家可以在Electronics作业写作中加以使用,相信可以让文章更富阅读性。allusion可以简单理解为:引经用典,作者假设你知道他所用的典故是什么,你在阅读到的时候,能够自然而然联系到那个典故,然后理解作者想要表达什么样的主题思想。其目的是为了能够使得语言高度浓缩,使得文学阅读赏析更有趣味,对主题分析至关重要。这种修辞手法在诗歌当中非常常见。我们来拿 Edgar Allan Poe 的一首诗做例子,大家先来读一下,能不能找到 allusion(allusion 一般是在人名中)? 
      这首诗里面的 Allusion 太多了,比如说 Helen, Nicéan, hyacinth, Naiad, Psyche,如果不是很了解希腊神话中的这些人名,那么对这首诗的赏析就不会很深刻。我们这边来通过TED 做的这个视频了解下 Psyche /ˈsaɪ.ki/ 是谁,看之前,认识下生词,更好理解视频内容:
      incarnation: n. the state of living in the form of a particular person or animal. According to some religions, people have several different incarnations
      intimidated: adj. feeling worried and lacking confidence because of the situation you are in or the people you are with
      prophecy: n. a statement that says what is going to happen in the future, especially one which is based on what you believe about a particular matter rather than existing facts
      savage: adj. extremely violent, wild or fierce
      serpent: n. a snake 
      crag: n. a high rough mass of rock which sticks out from the land around it
      rejoice: v. to feel or show great happiness about something
      dash: v. to hit with great force, especially causing damage
      intercept: v. to stop and catch something or someone before they are able to reach a particular place
      fleece: n. the thick covering of wool on a sheep, or this covering used to make a piece of clothing
      snap: v. If you snag something, it becomes caught on a sharp object and tears

      对于很多中国学生来说,找 Allusion 比较难,因为在现在的教育中,很少有接触西方的典故。一个好的解决方案是,在阅读的时候,注意观察一些人名,不了解的时候去谷歌一下这些人名有没有什么典故。

      当然,Allusion 不仅仅是在阅读文学作品的时候才会用到,在生活中也很常见,比如说下面的这个卡通,大家看出笑点了吗?
      上面说过,allusion 一般在人名中找到,这幅卡通里面有一个名字很奇怪,是那个包装盒上的 ICARUS, 那是什么呢?在网上查过之后,这是希腊神话里面的一个人物,维基百科的解释是(在学术写作中,不要用维基百科作为 source 来支持你的观点,要考证下维基百科所用的 source 是否可靠,是否权威,如果权威可靠,用那个 source,这边维基内容仅做扫盲用):

      In Greek mythology, Icarus is the son of the master craftsman Daedalus, the creator of the Labyrinth. Often depicted in art, Icarus and his father attempt to escape from Crete by means of wings that his father constructed from feathers and wax. Icarus' father warns him first of complacency and then of hubris, asking that he fly neither too low nor too high, so the sea's dampness would not clog his wings or the sun's heat melt them. Icarus ignored his father's instructions not to fly too close to the sun; when the wax in his wings melted he tumbled out of the sky and fell into the sea where he drowned.

      这个时候再来看卡通里面的那个包装盒上的文字:Remote Control ICARUS Flying Figure (遥控飞人 ICARUS)Caution: Keep out of direct sunlight. 便能理解其中的隐射了。Icarus 这个人物在艺术作品中也是常客,最著名是就是下面这幅 Landscape with The Fall of Icarus,大家能找到 Icarus 吗?
      Landscape with The Fall of Icarus, ca. 1590–95, oil on wood (63 by 90 centimetres (25 in × 35 in)), Circle of P. Bruegel the Elder, Museum van Buuren, Brussels, Belgium